In addition, as Argonne National Laboratory states, ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emissions between 34 to 44 percent compared to gasoline. [86] However, as a result of a supply shortage and the resulting high ethanol fuel prices, in 2010, the government mandated a temporary 90-day blend reduction from E25 to E20 beginning February 1, 2010. Ethanol fuel mixtures have "E" numbers which describe the percentage of ethanol fuel in the mixture by volume, for example, E85 is 85% anhydrous ethanol and 15% gasoline. Octane Fig.

Each fuel category has specific volume targets and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction thresholds relative to conventional gasoline. Dr. Euro some of this in a post and we discussed it briefly. [5], E10 and other blends of ethanol are considered to be useful in decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil, and can reduce carbon monoxide (CO) emissions by 20 to 30% under the right conditions. [4], One measure of alternative fuels in the U.S. is the "gasoline-equivalent gallon" (GEG). The fuel is sold through a blender pump that allows customers to choose between E10, E15, E30 or E85, with the latter blends sold only to flexible-fuel vehicles. Our work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. [78], The experiments show that water in fuel ethanol inhibits dry corrosion. )", "3,354 Total E85 Stations in the United States", "E85 fueling station availability is increasing", "Obama's fuel-efficiency push may lead fleets to use more gasoline", "Alternative Fueling Station Counts by State", "Scania Delivering 85 New Ethanol Buses for Stockholm Fleet", "Ethanol Usage in Urban Public Transportation - Presentation of Results", "São Paulo joins EU's BEST project with pure ethanol bus trial; over 400 in operation so far", "Começa a circular em São Paulo ônibus movido a etanol", "Sao Paulo Puts Ethanol Bus into Service in BEST Project", "O bom exemplo da Suécia:600 ônibus movidos com etanol para o transporte público de Estocolmo", "São Paulo ganha frota de ônibus a etanol", "São Paulo terá primeira frota de ônibus movida a etanol", "São Paulo putting 50 Scania ethanol buses into service", "Substituição de diesel por etanol: vantagem que novos ônibus trazem à cidade de São Paulo", "How to Beat the High Cost of Gasoline. Washington, DC 20036-6101, (202) 628-1400 phone

[102] The seasonal reduction of the ethanol content to an E85 winter blend is mandated to avoid cold starting problems at low temperatures. According to the study, in 2030 an E20 blend in an HEV can achieve a 10% emission savings compared to an HEV running on E5, for an annual fuel cost premium of GB£13 compared to an annual cost of GB£195 for an all-electric car. You can't just simply add those numbers and divide by two. Currently, a wide variety of Underwriters Laboratory (UL) certified equipment for blends between E15 and E85 are available to retail gas station owners.

As mentioned above, fuels with a higher octane rating reduce engine knocking and perform better. Factors considered included proximity to fuel stations, number of alternative fuels vehicles, gasoline prices, state level programs and incentives, proximity to fuel resources (e.g. EPA releases finalized E15 warning label", "Court declines to hear challenge to EPA's stance on E15 gasoline", "U.S. court rejects auto industry challenge to E15", "EPA Defeats Challenge To Higher Ethanol Levels In Fuel", "CARB: It will take years for California to decide on E15", "New E15 Gasoline May Damage Vehicles and Cause Consumer Confusion", "GM, Ford announce E15 compatibility with new models", "Volkswagen of America bringing in downsized 1.8L EA888 engine to displace 2.5L; all vehicles E15 capable", "FCA approving use of E15 in MY 2016 vehicles", "EPA Proposes 2014 Renewable Fuel Standards, 2015 Biomass-Based Diesel Volume", "For First Time, E.P.A. These concentrations are generally safe for recent engines that should run on pure gasoline.